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i really want to dye part of my hair an unnatural color...

im thinking special effects fishbowl, cupcake pink, or some kind of purple (joyride or wildflower)

this is my hair now




also has a fading perm (this was a good day) when i dont feel like badly straightening it

so,
1) what color do youthink would look best on me?
2) where/how should i put it in?

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Chapter 28

 

Adolf Hitler - Ruled fascist Germany from 1933 to 1945. Known for creating a central state and eliminating all rivals. Under his rule Germany held an aggressive foreign policy, which led to WWII. Genocide of Jews.

Anschluss - Proclaimed in 1938 by Hitler. Union with Austria. The West disliked but took no action.

Appeasement - British policy to preserve peace in the face of Germans by prime minister Neville Chamberlain, used during Munich Conference, failed with invasion of Poland in 1939.

Balfour Declaration - Created in 1917, it promised support from the British toward the Jewish settlers in Israel. Same time as when rebellions were sponsored by Arabs against Ottomans.

Benito Mussolini  - Had created a fascist state in Italy in the 1920s. Promised aggressive foreign policy and new nationalist glories. Only when Hitler arose did Mussolini rule boldy.

Blitzkrieg - German style of warfare using rapid movement of troops and surprise attacks. Using this Germany conquered Poland, and pushed into Denmark and Norway in 1940. Civilians were attacked.

Cold war - End of WWII to 1990. Relations between the US and allies and Soviet Union and allies. No actual warfare, but battling spheres of influence and nuclear arms.

Final solution - 1961 and 1962. German plan to destroy Jews. Deadliest phase of the holocaust.

Great Depression - International economic crisis that took place after WWI. Started with crash of US stock market in 1929. Collapse of banks and agriculture. Mass unemployment.

Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Major Japanese cities that had atomic bombs dropped on them in 1945. Led to Japanese surrender without the need of invasion.

Holocaust - Hitler’s genocide against the Jews throughout Europe. Over 6 million deaths using gas chambers. Gypsies and political dissidents also attacked.

Internationalization - Popular in middle of 1900s, the idea that people should unite despite boundaries, led to the creation of the international Red Cross, Postal Union, and other international fairs.

Iron Curtain - 1946. Churchill’s description of division between free and repressed societies that had begun to form.

Korean War - 1950-53. USSR supported the north and US and small United Nations force.

League of Nations - Created in the Treaty of Versailles by US President Wilson; supposed to deal with later disputes and prevent future war. US never actually joined.

Marshall Plan - 1947. Program of loans started by the US. Supposed to help western nations rebuild after war. Encouraged US economic power.

Mikhail Gorbachev - Ruled the USSR after 1985, for destalinization and the reduction of nuclear armament. Implemented glasnost and perestroika.

Munich conference - In 1938 Hitler invaded German speaking Czechoslovakia. War loomed but with the conference France and Britain thought Hitler was satisfied.

NATO - Created in 1949 under United States leadership to group most of the Western European powers plus Canada in a defensive alliance against possible Soviet aggression.

National Socialist Party - Started by the depression and came to power through Hitler in 1933. Used aggressive foreign policy in an attempt to make up for the humiliation from the Treaty of Versailles and expand.

Pearl Harbor - December 1941, Japanese attack on American naval base in Hawaii leading US to join WWII.

Potsdam Conference - July 1945. The US, Britain, and Soviet Union. East Europe was given to the Soviets while Germany and Austria was to be divided up.

Ronald Reagan - US president from 1981-89. Conservative, despised Soviet communism.

Socialism in one country

Spanish Civil War - Between 1936 and 1939. Spanish authoritarian and military leaders against republicans and leftists. Soviets supported republicans, Germany and Italy supported royalists. Royalist victory.

Submarine warfare - Use of new technology, the submarine, primarily by the German navy against the Western allies in WWI. Factor in bringing US into WWI.

Teheran Conference - 1943 meeting between US, Britain, and Soviet Union. Decision was made to focus on France and allowed Soviet troops to push back at Nazi forces.

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk - Signed by Lenin and the communists in an escape the war and restructure the Russian society. Gave Germans substantial land in return for peace. New territories leached troops and brought on heavy fighting.

Treaty of Versailles - In 1919, the treaty designated the aftermath of WWI. The League of Nations was created. Germany was to lose territory and make payments. Russia lost land to the creation of small states in eastern Europe.

Tripartite Pact - An alliance between Japan, Germany, and Italy. Created September 1940, created the alliance system (the Axis) for WWII.

United Nations - A new international organization; had better representation than the League of Nations, US did join. Soviet Union and China also joined with great benefit. Forum for handling world problems like labor and agriculture.

Vichy - Collaborative French government in South France set up in 1940s after defeat by Germans.

Vietnam War - 1954-75. Communist North supported by China and Soviet Union, South by US.

Warsaw Pact - 1955. Response to NATO. Organized by Soviet Union among satellites including Poland, Germany, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Albania, and Czechoslovakia.

Western front - A front mainly in France fighting Germany with Britain. Mainly trench warfare. New technologies such as machine guns and poison gas were used. Great casualties on both sides.

Winston Churchill - Prime minister in Britain during WWII, is accountable for opposition of German air attacks.

World Court - Started during internationalization, created at The Hague in 1899, meant to remove causes of war; but failed to do so in 1900s (obviously).

World War I - 1914-18, almost all of Europe and their colonies, started over conflict in the Balkans, victory by allied Britain, France, Italy, and the United States. Treaty of Versailles.

World War II - 1939-45 war between W Europe, N Africa, Eurasia, SW Asia, China, the Pacific, and ME. Germany and Japan defeated.

Yalta Conference - Took place in 1945. Divided Germany. Roosevelt pressed Soviet for help against Japan with promise of Manchurian land.

 

Chapter 29

 

Affluent society - Economic status of post-WWII nations as they put priority in consumer goods instead of other places.

Betty Friedan (721) - Popularized new feminism with her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique. College graduate, whose role left her unsatisfied, urged work and equality. Divorced. Co-founder of N.O.W.

Christian Democratic movement (712) - New political movement in W European nations after WWII. Devoted to democratic institutions and moderate social reform.

Cold war (712) - The state of relations between the United States and its allies and the Soviet Union and its allies between the 1950s to 1990; based on creation of political spheres of influence and a nuclear arms race rather than actual warfare.

Common Market (716) - Set up by EEC. Reduced tariffs b/w members, common tariffs for outsiders. Free movement of labor and investment encouraged. CM bureaucracy to oversee operations. Court system. Funding for lagging regions.

Cubist movement (724) - 20th cent. art, best represented by Picasso, objects created with geometric shapes.

European Economic Community (716) - 1958. W European nations (W Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) set up a Common Market to create a united economy. Later joined by Britain, Ireland, Denmark, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Sweden, Austria, and Finland and called the European Union.  

Fascism (710) - Political philosophy in 1920s and 30s in Italy then Germany, attacked weakness of democracy, corruption of capitalism; promised vigorous foreign and military programs; undertook state control of economy to reduce social friction.

Federal Republic of Germany (714) - Created as France, Britain, and the US progressively merged their occupation zones in Germany; postwar W Germany.

Great Society - 1965. US President Lyndon B. Johnson’s idea to create a society with a war on poverty with funding for education, medical care for elderly, and protection from discrimination.

John Keynes (724) - British economist who stressed importance of government spending to compensate for loss of purchasing power during a depression; played role in the policies of the American New Deal and European economic planning after WWI.

Kellogg-Briand Pact (708) - 1928. Treaty between two American and French leaders outlawing war forever, based on high hopes of the Treaty of Versailles. Indication of naïve hopes.

Margaret Thatcher (716) - In 1979(-1991), the British Conservative leader began the longest-running prime ministership in history; worked to cute welfare and housing costs and promote free enterprise.

NATO - Created in 1949 under United States leadership to group most of the Western European powers plus Canada in a defensive alliance against possible Soviet aggression.

New Deal (710) - 1933. Franklin Roosevelt. Put in place several social insurance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of state.

New feminism (721) - New wave of feminism from 1949. Emphasized more literal equality that would play down special domestic roles and qualities.

Oil crisis (718) - 1973. ME oil producing states cut production and raised prices, at first in response to ME war with Israel. 1979, oil crisis led to severe recession throughout western society with high rates of unemployment.

Pablo Picasso (724) - Artist, known as head of cubist movement.

 Popular Front (710) - 1936-1938. Liberal, socialist, and communist parties allied in France in response to rising rightist movements. Won election but unable to take strong social reform measures due to conservative and authoritarian government.

Simone de Beauvoir (721) - French intellectual, published The Second Sex in 1949, which began the new feminism movement.

Technocrat (715) - 1940s. Term for a new type of bureaucrat, called so because of the intense training in engineering or economics and devotion to power of national planning. Rose in gov’t following WWII.

Totalitarian state (710) - New government formed in 20th century; exercised direct control over nearly all of the activities of his subjects. Germany, Italy, Soviet Union.

Welfare state (710) - In W Europe after WWII, increased government spending, providing new levels of social insurance against illness and unemployment. Included medical programs and economic planning.

 

Chapter 30

 

Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn (730) - Revolutionary leader, critical to soviet regime. Published The Gulag Archipelago on Siberian prison camps.  

Alexander Dubcek -   A Slovak politician and briefly leader of Czechoslovakia (1968-1969)

Alexander Kerensky (730) - 1917 Revolutionary leader eager to see genuine parliamentary rule, religious and other freedoms, and a host of political and legal changes. 

Berlin Wall (738) - Built in 1961 to contain the flow of widespread exodus from E Germany to W Germany. Immigration was in response to lack of consumer goods and close Soviet control of economy and politics. Wall was torn down at end of Cold War in 1991.

Collectivization (735) - Began in 1928.The process of creating large state farms as opposed to individual holdings. Promised to facilitate mechanization of agriculture while controlling peasants; strongly opposed by the kulaks (commercially oriented peasants)

Comintern - An international organization of Communist parties set up by Lenin in 1919 and abolished in 1943

Congress of Soviets (731) - Lenin's parliamentary institution based on the soviets and Bolshevik domination; replaced the initial parliament dominated by the Social Revolutionary party.

Council of People’s Commissars (730) - After Nov. 1917. Government council to govern the state. Made from representatives across the nation.

Five-year plans (735) - Stalin’s plans to set priorities for industrial development, including expected output levels and new facilities. Factories for metallurgy, mining, and electric power were built, led to massive state-planned industrialization at cost of availability of consumer products.

Glasnost (746) - 1980s. A policy of political liberation in the Soviet Union, implying new freedoms to comment and criticize, introduced by Gorbachev.

Joseph Stalin (732) - Successor to Lenin as head of the USSR; strongly nationalist view of Communism; represented anti-Western strain of Russian tradition; crushed opposition to his rule; established series of five-year plans to replace New Economic Policy; fostered agricultural collectivization; led USSR through World War II; furthered cold war with Western Europe and the United States; died in 1953.

Leon Trotsky - Russian revolutionary and Communist theorist who helped Lenin and built up the army; he was ousted from the Communist Party by Stalin and eventually assassinated in Mexico (1879-1940)

Mikhail Gorbachev (746) - In 1985 he was introduced by the Soviet Union to renew some of the earlier attacks on Stalinist rigidity; showed a new, more Western style, held open conferences and allowed media to report on problems. Urged reduction in nuclear armament; proclaimed policies of glasnost and perestroika.

New Economic Policy (732) - NEP. Introduced in 1921 by Lenin; reduced economic disarray by promising freedom action for small business people and peasant landowners.

Nikita Khrushchev (745) - Stalin's successor as head of USSR; attacked Stalinism in 1956 for concentration of power and arbitrary dictatorship; failure of Siberian development program and opposition of Stalinists led to downfall.

Perestroika (747) - Late 1980s, introduced by Gorbachev, a policy of economic restructuring giving more flexibility for private ownership and decentralized control in industry and agriculture.

Politburo (736) - Executive committee of the Soviet Communist party; 20 members. A “rubber stamp” to Stalin’s power.

Red Army (731) - Powerful new army raised under the inspiration of Leon Trotsky; used people of humble background and inspired mass loyalty in the name of a communist future.

Russian Communist party (730) - Lenin and the Bolsheviks. 1917. Came to power in Nov. after a second revolution expelled liberal leadership.

Social Revolutionary party (731) - Supported by parliamentary election, emphasized peasant support and rural reform. Expelled in favor of Bolsheviks.

Socialist realism (741) - A new style of art encouraged by Soviet culture glorifying heroic workers, soldiers, and peasants. Seen as a vital educational tool and an antidote to immoral Western cultural.  

Solidarity (739) - 1970s independent labor movement in formed in Poland from widespread Catholic unrest under Lech Walesa; challenged USSR-dominated government of Poland.

Soviet (730) - A council of workers that took over the government and arrested tsar ministers after revolution broke out in March 1917 in Petrograd (St. Petersburg).

Sputnik (745) - 1957, first satellite sent into space; sent up during Khrushchev's government; initiated space race with the United States.

Supreme Soviet (732) - Parliament of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; elected by universal suffrage; actually controlled by Communist party; served to ratify party decisions.

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (732) - USSR. Recognized the socialist republics in 1923 in various ethnic regions of Russia; firmly controlled by Communist party; diminished nationalities protest under Bolsheviks; dissolved 1991.

Vaclav Havel - a Czech writer and dramatist. He was the last President of Czechoslovakia and the first President of the Czech Republic.

 

Chapter 31

 

Chiang Ching-Kuo - Ruled Taiwanese government in 1978, following father Chiang Kai-shek. Continued authoritarian government; attempted to diminish gap between followers of his father and indigenous islanders.

Chiang Kai-Shek - Succeeded Sun Yat-sen as leader of the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party in China) in mid 1920’s. In 1930s became most powerful leader in China but driven from China by Communists after WWII.

General Douglas MacArthur - Commanded Pacific Campaign during WWII, led American occupation of Japan after war, and commanded international forced during Korean War.

Hiraoka Kimitoke -    Nationalist writer against Westernization.

Hong Kong -   British colony until 1997 and major commercial center.

Hyundai - Industrial group that has great power in South Korea. Practically governs the South East coast with ships, supertankers, factories, schools, and housing units.

Kim Il-Sung - Led the Korean People’s Army against Japan in 1932-45, premier and president of NK from 1948-94.

Korean War - 1950-53. USSR supported the north and US and small United Nations force.

Korekiyo Takahashi - Minister of Finance in Japan during the 1930s. Used government spending to create jobs. Created export surge and eliminated military purchasing.

Lee Kuan Yew - Ruler of Singapore from its independence in 1959 to the present through a tightly controlled authoritarian government, suppressed political diversity through the People’s Action party.

Liberal Democratic Party - Formed in 1955 into the 1990s, economically reconstructed and monopolized government in Japan.

North Korea - Ruled by Kim Il Sung since its creation after the Korean War to 1994, became isolated, even furthermore by the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991.  

Pacific Rim states - Countries known for rapid growth, surging exports, industrialization. Influenced by Confucian values, relying on government planning, limits on instability. Nations include Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, and Taiwan

Republic of Korea - Ruled by nationalist Syngman Rhee. Parliamentary institutions under an authoritarian government. Industrialization after 1950s.

Singapore - Once part of Malaya colony held by British, who tried to make it into a naval base. Under Japanese rule during WWII and became an independent port in 1959.

Syngman Rhee - Anti-communist president of South Korea in 1948. Dictatorial rule ended in 1960 with exile.

Taiwan - Refuge for Nationalist Chinese regime in 1948 from Chiang Kai-shek. Independence with help from US. Large scale industrialization after 1950s.

Tojo Hideki - Japanese general that facilitated progressively more militaristic prime ministers after 1936. Put down military coup. Blocked appointment of liberals.

Zaibatsus - Industrial combines in Japan during the 1890s during industrialization.

 

Chapter 32

 

Alliance for progress – 1961 US led to develop Latin America as an alternative to political solutions. Limited success.

Alvaro Obregon – Ruler of Mexico from 1915 to 1920

Augusto Sandino – led guerilla against US occupation in Nicaragua. Assassinated by Nicaraguan National Guard in 1934. Symbol of US resistance in Central America.

Banana Republics – Conservative governments in Latin America created or supported by the US, either corrupt of acting in the interest of the US.

Cristeros – 1920s Peasant movement in Central Mexico to stop secularism, armed violence.

Diego Obregon – Alvaro’s brother.

Emiliano Zapata – Revolutionary commander of peasant guerilla movement. For removal of Madero and Huerta and widespread land reforms.

Ernesto Guevara – Led guerilla movement in 1967 in Bolivia, also anArgentine revolutionary that helped Castro overthrow Batista.

Eva Duarte – wife of Peron, known as Evita. Died in 1952.

Fidel Castro – Cuban revolutionary, led overthrown of Batista in 1958. Socialist reforms. Under Castro Cuba depended on USSR.

Francisco Madero – Mexican Democratic reformer. After being arrested by Diaz, revolted against him. Gained power but removed and assassinated in 1913.

Fulgencio Batista – dictator of Cuba from 1934 to 1944. Became president again in 1952 until Castro cast him out.

Gabriel Garcia Marquez – Nobel Prize winner and writer from Colombia.

Getulio Vargas – 1929 elected president of Brazil. Centralized politics. Leaned toward communism after 1949. Suicide 1954.

Good Neighbor Policy – 1933 by Roosevelt to stop direct intervention of Latin American politics.

Jacobo Arbenz – President in Guatemala from 1951-54. Overthrew dictator Ubico.

Jorge Luis Borges – Writer from Argentina. 1899-1986.

Jose Clemente Orozco - Mexican muralist after revolution. Romantic images of the Indian past with Christian symbols and Marxist ideology.

Juan D. Peron – Argentinean leader. Dominant after 1943. Appealed to working and poor, president in 1946. Exile in 1955. President again in 1973.

Juan Jose Arevalo – Guatemalan president bringing Socialist reforms. Against foreign-owned companies. 1944.

Lazaro Cardenas – Mexican president from 1934 – 1940. Redistribution of land into communal farms, education.

Liberation theology - Catholic theology and Socialist principles in effort to bring about improved conditions for the poor in Latin America in 1900s.

Mexican Constitution of 1917 - assured land reform, limited foreign ownership of key resources, guaranteed the rights of workers, and placed restrictions on clerical education; marked end of Mexican Revolution.

Mexican Revolution – 1910-1920. Ousted Diaz from power, led by Villa and Zapata.

NAFTA – 1994 created a free trade zone among Mexico, Canada, and the US, to encourage economic growth in all three nations. Difficult negotiations.

PRI - Party of the Institutionalized Revolution. Dominant party in Mexico throughout 1920s and 30s. Integrated labor, peasant, military, and middle-class sectors. Controlled other political organizations in Mexico.

Pancho Villa – Revolutionary and military commander in N Mexico. Removed Diaz from power, for removal of Madero and Huerta.

Salvador Allende – Chilean president that nationalized industries and banks, supported peasant and worker expropriation of land and factories. Overthrown 1973 by military and US.

Sandinistas – Socialist revolution in Nicaragua named after Augusto Sandino. 1980s.

Shining Path – Peruvian communist guerilla force. 1970s to 90s. Violence and terrorism. 

Tragic Week – Brutal repression under nationalism in response to labor force strike. 1919 in Argentina.

United Fruit Company - Important foreign economic concern in Guatemala. Attempted land reform aimed at United Fruit caused US intervention in Guatemalan politics leading to ouster of reform government in 1954.

Victoriano Huerta – After removal of Madero in 1913, attempted to reestablish centralized dictatorship in Mexico. Forced from power by Villa and Zapata in 1914.

 

Chapter 33

 

Afrikaner National party – Majority party in South Africa after 1948. Apartheid, independence from Britain.

Atlantic Charter of 1941 – WWII b/w US and Britain. Sympathy for decolonization.

B.G. Tilak effendi – Indian Nationalism should be based on Hinduism, restoration of ancient Hindu stuff, offended Muslims, first populist leader.

Dinshawai incident – British soldiers and Egyptians, 1906. Hunting accident, wife of prayer leader shot. Egyptian protest movement.

Government Of India Act – 1935 British to control central administration in return for turning over provincial governments to Indian leaders.

Indian National Congress party – Party in 1885, governed during postcolonial period. Grew out of regional associations of Western-educated Indians.

Jomo Kenyatta – Nonviolent nationalist party in Kenya. Kenya Africa Union. Failed to win concessions b/c of resistance to white settlers. Power after suppression of LFA.

Kwame Nkrumah – 1957 nationalist during decolonization, power through Convention Peoples part, his own.

Land Freedom Army – for independence of Kenya, resorted to terror in 1953, Mau Mau

Leon Pinsker – European Zionist, Jewish to Christian European nations impossible.

Lord Cromer – British adviser, pushed for eco. reforms, failed to clear debt in Egypt.

Mandates - after WWI governments trusted to Europe. 1922. British mandates in Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, and Palestine.

Mohandas Gandhi – western educated, nationalist, spiritual leader, nonviolent disobedience forcing Britain to give independence in 1947. Murdered by a Hindu 1948.

Montagui-Chemsford reforms – 1919 raised power and number of Indians in politics.

Morley-Minto reforms – educated Indians got more power to elect and serve on local all-Indian legislative councils.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah – Muslim nationalist. Muslim League. Supported British during WWII for separate Muslim state after war. First president of Pakistan.

Muslim League – 1906 to demand for separate seats in Hindu-dominated India.

National Liberation Front – Algerian nationalist movement. Guerilla war against France. Independence in 1958.

Negritude – literary movement to combat African stereotypes, beauty of being black!!!!!

Rowlatt Act – restricted Indian civil rights like freedom of speech, to offset Montagu-Chelmsford reforms.

Satyagraha – “truth force”, Ghandi’s nonviolent opposition policy.

Secret Army Organization – French settlers in Algeria, guerilla war after independence  during 1960s assaulted assaults Arabs, Berbers, and French who promoted independence.

Simon Commission – 1927. To unite left and right sides of the independence movement and Muslims and Hindus.

Theodor Herzl – Austrian Zionist. World Zionist Organization, 1897. Jews to Palestine.

Wafd party – nationalist party created after being denied a hearing at Versailles. Led to limited independence of Egypt from 1922.

Zionism – started 1860s and 70s arguing that Jews should return to a ME Holy Land, came true with creation of Palestine.

 

Chapter 34

 

African National Congress – Black organization in South Africa in 1990s. For end of apartheid and open democracy. Declared illegal.

Anwar Sadat – 1973, tried to dismantle expensive state programs, opened Egypt to western investment, accepted Israel peace treaty.

Apartheid – rigid segregation system in South Africa giving whites power.

Ayatollah Khomeini – religious leader in Iran, for pure Islamic government and no western influence. 1979 ish.

Bangladesh – gained independence from E. Pakistan in 1972.

Biafra – Independent nation in E Nigeria in 1970, suppressed and reincorporated later.

F.W. De Klerk – President in 1989 to 94. National Party. Ended apartheid. Democracy

Free Officers movement - Military nationalist movement in Egypt. Made in 1930s. Allied with the Muslim Brotherhood. Coup to take government from khedive in 1952

Gamal Abdul Nasser – Took power in 1952 military coup. Reduced unemployment through reforms and state resources. Kicked Britain from Suez Canal, 1956.

Green Revolution – Improved seed strains, fertilizers, and irrigation leading to higher crop production in densely populated ASIA. 1960s.

Hasan al-Banna – Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, 1928.

Homelands – areas in South Africa designated for minorities/. Overpopulated and poor.

Hosni Mubarak - President of the Arab Republic of Egypt, 1981- present

Indira Gandhi – prime minister 1966 to 70s, Nehru’s child, astute central figure.

Jawaharlal Nehru – Led India after independence, 1947. social reform, civil rights, democracy. Disciple of Gandhi.  

Muslim Brotherhood - Egyptian nationalist movement founded in 1928. Fundamentalist movement in Islam; promoted strikes and urban riots against the khedival government.

Nelson Mandela – Helped end apartheid. First black prime minister in 1994. African National Congress Party.

Neocolonial economy – dominance of first and second world controls w/o political ties.

Primary products – crops in high demand in developed nations, prices vary, primary exports of third world countries.

Saddam Hussein –Military ruler of Iraq. Led 10 year war w/ Iran. Tried to annex Kuwait in 1990. 1991 Persian Gulf War.

 

Chapter 35


Cultural Revolution - Mao Zedong’s movement to restore dominance over realists. Used mobs to ridicule political rivals. 1965-68.

Dien Bien Phu – Viet Minh victory over French colonialism, power of N Vietnam. 1954.

Gang of Four – Jiang Qing and four political allies that attempted to take control. 1976.

General Giap – Military chief of the Viet Minh, 1954. Mastermind of Dien Bien Phu.

Great Leap Forward – 1958-60s, futile pitch of small-scale industrialization communes.

Guomindang – Chinese Nationalist Party, Sun Yat-sen, support from criminal underworld. Initial alliance with Communists. 1919-mid 20s.

Ho Chi Minh – former Saigon. US headquarters during Vietnam War. N control in 1975.

Jiang Qing – Mao’s wife, Gang of Four, opposed pragmatists and supportd communism.

Li dazhao - One of the founders of the Chinese Communist Party

Long March – communist escape from Hunan during civil war, 1934. Mao as leader.

Mao Zedong – communist leader, rural reform and peasantry, influenced by his wife, unsuccessful reforms. 1920s-1958.

Mass Line - 1950s economic policy under Mao leading to formation of agricultural cooperatives becoming farming collectives.

May Fourth movement – rejected Confucianism, led to intellects aim at Chinese democracy, resistance to Japanese encroachment. 1919.

Minh Mang – 2nd emperor of Vietnam, emphasized Confucianism and persecuted Catholics. 1920-41.

New Youth – Marxist periodical, spread communist ideas to coastal youth population.

Ngo Dinh Diem – Leader of S Vietnam under US support, overthrown by US. 1950s.

Nguyen Anh – 1802. Last surviving of Nguyen dynasty. Proclaimed emperor.

People’s Liberation Army - Chinese Communist army. Directed country under People's Republic of China.

People’s Republic of China – Mainland communist China. 1949.

Pragmatists – Communist politicians wanted to restore state direction locally. X Mao.

Red Guard – Students that discredited political enemies of Mao during Cultural Rev.

Socialist Youth Corps – 1920, recruited urban working class to nationalist revolution.

Sun Yat-sen – 1911 Revolt against Qing dynasty, Kuomintang. Died 1925.

Viet Cong – communist guerilla movement in S Vietname. National Liberation Front.

Viet Minh – communist Vietnamese nationalist movement.WWII. Guerilla methods.

Vietnamese Nationalist party – 1920s, wanted violent overthrow of French colonies.

Whampoa Military Academy – 1924, Military sector if Kuomintang, Chiang Kai-shek.

Yuan Shikai – 1912-16. N Chinese warlord. Wanted throne, became president but resigned with Japanese invasion.

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